What’s Up This Summer? IDCE Students Share Their Plans

The IDCE Department at Clark University is a community of scholars and practitioners, and nowhere is this more in evidence than in the diversity of work, research, activism and service activities with which IDCE students fill their summers. And I do mean fill—almost to bursting, in fact. I’ve caught glimpses of these busy three-month interludes many times over the years—at parties, graduation ceremonies, speaking events—so I thought it would be of interest to the wider community to pull as many as possible together in one place.

In mid-May, I asked students to share their plans. Here is what they’ll be up to.

Caliper Metal Turning
The Fair Tech Collective

Sarah Gates (GISDE) will be conducting research projects with The Fair Tech Collective and World Resources Institute as a Summer of Maps Fellow at Azavea.

Stanley Greidinger will be working with Professor Tim Downs and various students on a environmental impact assessment review which they hope to publish. Stanley will also continue his job at the US Forest Service where he is an executive assistant, and taking over a position as the general manger for the Clark Community Thrift store. Stanley adds that all of this is part of ramping up his practical experience with community and environmental issues, as well as connecting his academic study to research.

Cory Hertog (ES&P/MBA dual degree program) will be working with the Environmental Defense Fund as a Climate Corps Fellow. Cory will conduct energy and water efficiency benchmarking on public housing properties in Boise, Idaho, to gather data on the properties and identify energy saving opportunities.

Drew Hooks (IDSC) will travel to Barcelona to conduct focus groups with members of worker cooperatives. These focus groups will discuss the members’ motivations for forming cooperatives and the manner in which their respective cooperatives engage with the community.

Bethia Kadoe (ES&P) has an internship with the Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnership (NEEP) in Lexington, MA, for the first half of the summer, and will be spending the latter half in Burma/Myanmar researching impacts of sand mining.

Mexican_Spotted_Owl
Mexican Spotted Owl

Jeanie Lai (GISDE) will be in the Denver area completing a fellowship with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, where she will be locating, digitizing, and updating spatial data related to the Mexican spotted owl and southwestern willow flycatcher.

Daniel Lassila will be doing GIS land-cover research with the NGO Iracambi in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Nara McCray (GISDE) is spending the summer in Washington D.C. creating energy access maps of India and Tanzania for the World Resources Institute.

Molly McPhee (CDP Class of 2017) is working this summer as Assistant Director at a Boys & Girls Club camp in Colorado.

Kelsey Meisenhelder (GISDE) will be a conservation geospatial technician with the Nature Conservancy on Palmyra Atoll (about 1,000 miles south of Hawaii) as part of the Growing Leaders on Behalf of the Environment (GLOBE) intern program. Kelsey will be taking geospatial data in the field (with a GPS) to support ongoing ecology research, and will create infrastructure maps of the research station and islands.

Hasnaa Mokhtar (Ph.D. student, International Development) will be working with Professor Nicole Overstreet on a research project  identifying sociocultural barriers preventing Muslim women survivors of violence from accessing services in Worcester, MA, and developing strategies to reduce gaps in service needs. She has also been accepted into the Karamah Law & Leadership Summer Program which she will attend for two weeks in July in Washington, D.C.

Magaly Preciado (IDSC) will start a project with the UN Global Compact office in Mexico, developing indicators to evaluate the sustainability reports presented by corporate signatories.  She also has an internship as a Diversity & Inclusion Analyst at the Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston.

Patrick Seed (IDCE MA Class of 2017) will by traveling to Roche a Bateau, Haiti, at the end of May to assist with post-Hurricane Matthew reconstruction.

Matthew Woodruff will be working as an assistant program coordinator for Recreation Worcester, a free six week youth development program that takes place at local parks. Matthew will oversee data management and program evaluation for all sites.

(Editor’s Note: don’t see your name? Never fear: just send me your own summer plans and I’ll update this post)

 

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Unnatural Disaster: The Famine Crisis in Africa and Yemen

The worst hunger emergency since the second world war is happening right now.

That is the conclusion of Stephen O’Brien, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Emergency Relief Coordinator. For the first time in the organization’s history, his office warns, famine is either underway or developing in four countries at once: South Sudan (where it has already been declared in some regions), Somalia, Nigeria and Yemen. Approximately 22 million people are threatened with starvation in the weeks and months ahead. Another 30 million are severely hungry, living with the pain, physical weakness and other debilitating effects of hunger on a daily basis.

O’Brien has made a very specific appeal to U.N. member countries: more than $4 billion by July for emergency relief alone. “We stand at a critical point in our history,” he said. “Without collective and coordinated global efforts, people will simply starve to death.”

This disaster cannot be traced to a single cause—indeed the temptation to do so must be rigorously avoided, for anyone concerned with issues of food security. As with all hunger disasters, from those inadvertently engineered by the British in the 19th century to the 2011 famine in the Horn of Africa, a host of factors has contributed to the present crisis.

Much More Than Drought

Many casual readers of the news are left with the impression that one factor—the weather—tells them all they need to know about hunger. In the four countries at the heart of the current crisis, the climatic situation is certainly dire. Sustained drought has killed crops, fodder and livestock. Extreme heat events associated with climate change have further damaged food production (for example, by preventing or stunting crop germination). Rivers have shrunk or dried up altogether. Vital rains have failed.

But again, these climatic elements of the tragedy are only part of the picture. During the 2011 crisis, IDCE Director Edward Carr put it bluntly:

The drought in the Horn of Africa is not the cause of the famine we are seeing take shape in southern Somalia.  We are being pounded by a narrative of this famine that more or less points to the failure of seasonal rains as its cause . . . which I see as a horrible abdication of responsibility for the human causes of this tragedy.

Carr underscores the profoundly interconnected nature of the causes of food insecurity. He notes that such causes virtually always include the failure of markets, as they are the mechanisms by which food reaches people, and through which they generate income to purchase it.

These markets may be local, regional, or global—but increasingly they are all three at once. “At this point, the interdependence of markets is so remarkable that droughts in Russia compromising a wheat harvest can trigger maize price spikes in Malawi during a normal harvest year.”

causes flowchart

As the illustration suggests, market failures themselves stem from numerous causes. Elisabeth Gilmore, an Associate Professor at IDCE, along with colleagues at other institutions, has been investigating the effects of food price spikes on social unrest, regime change and civil war, as well as caloric consumption and economic well-being. Currently, she leads an effort to review the metrics commonly used by conflict scholars to examine the pathways from food prices to political instability. She cautions that over the longer term, higher food prices (such as those caused by climate shocks) could force the world’s poorest to spend more and more of their income on sustaining basic caloric needs, with adverse impacts for development and social stability.

Conflict, in the current hunger emergency, is a factor of extraordinary importance. Ellen Messer of the United Nations University goes so far as to state that “only in conflict-affected areas does drought produce famine that kills.” Others analysts do not go so far. What is certain is that all four countries now threatened with famine are experiencing large-scale armed conflict, with millions of people having been driven from their homes.

In Yemen, the ongoing war is a disaster of staggering proportions all by itself. Various municipalities are under near-constant siege, both by Houthi rebels and devastating Saudi airstrikes (with initial, and to some degree continuing, U.S. support). The city of Taiz, third largest in Yemen, has been without running water or electricity for two years. Health and sanitation systems have broken down, as have systems of governance and accountability.

In addition to the thousands killed in battles and bombing raids since the outbreak of war in 2015, the conflict has shattered the economy, displaced over two million persons and left 6.8 million in a condition of extreme food insecurity. Of these, some 3.3 million children, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers are severely malnourished. And the ongoing combat has slowed or halted nearly every form of response. Western banks, doubting that they will be repaid, have cut lines of credit for food traders seeking to import food into the country. Fighting in and around Yemen’s ports has endangered humanitarian workers and destroyed dock equipment, leaving vessels laden with food anchored offshore. U.N. Secretary General Antonio Guterres has called Yemen’s crisis the largest food insecurity emergency in the world.”

Conflict is also the most acute factor in South Sudan’s famine emergency, where war has been raging since 2013. Food has even become a weapon of war in this young country, where crops have been intentionally burned and millions forced off their farms, often into refugee camps in Uganda or Kenya. This spring, IDCE Professor Amira Mohamed taught a class entitled “Conflict and Displacement in the Horn of Africa,” and devoted portions of the class to famine and food security. In early March, the class hosted a panel discussion on the recently-declared famine in South Sudan, in which scholars and human rights activists Dr. Isaac Gang and Omer Ismail participated via Skype.

In similar fashion, the fighting in northeast Nigeria (between government forces and Boko Haram militants) has displaced two million people. The fighting prevented harvest of the last two years of crops and could do so again in 2017. It has also crippled the internal markets that could otherwise be moving produce from other regions of Nigeria into the northeast.

Somalia last suffered famine in 2011, and now faces the possibility of its return. Unlike 2011, there is now a real if fragile central government in Mogadishu, and hence something of a national response. On the other hand drought conditions are more severe and widespread: last year, the country’s first seasonal rains were well below average, and the second, final rains failed altogether. In the first months of 2017 the vital Shabelle river in southern Somalia has been dangerously low. Just as concerning is the lateness of the global response. The global humanitarian reporting agency IRIN notes:

If there was an overwhelming lesson from 2011, it was that the time for rapid action is before the situation deteriorates into famine. The window for early action to prevent widespread mortality in 2017 is rapidly closing – indeed it is already late in the process to be trying to mitigate the crisis.

As Edward Carr noted in 2011, the public’s ability to help with an ongoing crisis is limited. “Send money,” he advises. “Don’t send clothes, shoes, or any other stuff. There is a world of advice on donating to aid organizations out there on the blogs and twitter, so do a little research beforehand.” Individuals, however, should not even consider making a journey to a region facing a food emergency, as it’s impossible not to get in the way. “If you don’t have a network to work through, you shouldn’t be going. It’s really that simple.”

But anyone concerned with food security can help in the struggle for long-term solutions. That struggle rests fundamentally on improving our grasp of the full, multi-causal nature of the problem of hunger. In future articles on food security, ENGAGE will consider some of the ways IDCE scholars and others are applying their knowledge and eschewing disciplinary boundaries in the search for answers.

Update: in a fascinating and highly pertinent essay, IDCE Professor Amber Murrey discusses food sovereignty, food justice and imperialism through the example of Thomas Sankara of Burkino Faso. Among other things, her essay reminds us how food aid can actually erode food security in the long term if not paired with broader movements for ecological and social justice.

 

Clark IDCE Grad Student a Leader in the Struggle Against Islamaphobia

hasnaa-mokhtar-clark-university-library_0Accomplished journalist and Clark International Development PhD student Hasnaa Mokhtar received multiple and well-deserved forms of recognition this spring for her work combating prejudice and misconceptions about Islam, with particular attention to issues effecting Muslim girls. Mokhtar received her MA from IDCE and is now doing coursework for her PhD. Read about her important work in Clark’s own newspaper The Scarlet and the snazzy online magazine Nylon, which named Mokhtar one of eight influential Muslim journalists to watch, especially noting her powerful essay following the 2015 terror attacks in Paris. We salute you, Hasnaa!

Clark and IDCE Launch Master of Health Science Program for Fall 2017, Scholarship Deadline May 5th

As announced in last week’s press release, Clark University and the IDCE Department are launching a major new degree program, the Master of Health Sciences (MHS), in the fall of 2017. The new program, begun with the aid of a generous grant from the Leir  Charitable Foundations, is designed to challenge stuKenya 2011 BWdents to think in new and innovative ways about health science, policy and practice, and to seek solutions that elude more traditional ways of thinking about health.

Students in the new MHS will choose a concentration in Community Health or Global Health, but the curricula of the two concentrations will overlap by design, so that all students have some exposure to both. Interested students have an incentive to apply soon: consideration for Clark’s merit-based fellowships will begin on May 5th.

The new MHS program will be coordinated by Dr. Marianne Sarkis, a medical anthropologist and professor in IDCE. Sarkis notes that the department “has always been involved with health, whether it was related to HIV/AIDS, transactional sex in Senegal, access to clean water in Mexico, children’s health, community violence prevention or reproductive health of refugees and immigrants.” But interest in health studies has been steadily growing for some years, at both the graduate and undergraduate level. Two years ago, in response, Associate Provost Bill Fisher (a former director of IDCE) and Jim Gomes of Clark’s Mosakowski Institute sought the assistance of the Leir Foundations. Their efforts paid off: in late 2016, Leir awarded a $500,000 grant for the creation of the MHS program. Now it’s all systems go for the program’s first cohort this fall.

A baseline ethical perspective—health care as a right, not a privilege—forms part of the program’s guiding philosophy. And like all aspects of learning at IDCE, the MHS program will transcend disciplinary boundaries. Such an approach, Sarkis emphasizes, is crucial. “The complexity of today’s health problems requires solutions that are multi-disciplinary, multi-level, creative and participatory—both bottom-up and top-down.” Another key element of the program will be its hands-on approach. “With guidance from faculty, students will learn how to apply the knowledge they learn from books and classes to solving real life problems. They’ll be encouraged to engage communities in identifying their needs, priorities, and solutions, working with them to figure out the best responses to issues affecting their health.”

Another key aspect of the MHS—in keeping, again, with the IDCE vision—will be the emphasis on combining scholarship with practice. Students will pursue rigorous classroom studies in subjects from epidemiology to biostatistics to health equity and access. But they will also gain hands-on experience through a field project or practicum, and learn the essential skill of engaging with health care stakeholders—patients, providers, policy makers and the wider community to which they belong.

IDCE Professor Ellen Foley will also be teaching in the MHS program. Dr. Foley, whose research interests include reproductive health and HIV/AIDS in West Africa, says that the new program “offers students the chance to connect the dots between global economics and policy priorities, the organization and delivery of health care, and the challenges that people face getting and staying healthy.” She draws attention to the program’s commitment to health equity and ending health disparities. “The program will better prepare students to decide how they want to engage in community and global health issues as catalysts for positive change,” she adds.

One field that doesn’t instantly come to mind when discussing health education is Geographic Information Science (GIS), but IDCE Professor Yelena Ogneva-Himmelberger points out its relevancy. “GIS and remote sensing allow visualizing and analyzing spatial patterns of disease distribution, and investigating how health outcomes and processes differ from place to place. GIS maps may indicate connections and trends that would not otherwise be apparent.” For this reason, the new MHS features a required GIS skills course, which Dr. Ogneva-Himmelberger will be offering in the coming academic year.

What does all this mean in practice, however? In 2013, the magazine of Columbia University argued that “the basic model of public health education hasn’t changed substantially in a century.” Will IDCE’s new program really challenge business as usual?

Sarkis’ answer is an emphatic yes. “I’m not interested in having students generate knowledge for the sake of knowledge. There’s been so much harm done by ‘helicopter research,’ and we can certainly do better by the students and the communities with whom we work.”

As an illustration, she points to issues surrounding immigrant and refugee communities. Faced with so many changes and challenges at once—food, language, customs, climate, employment, transport—newly-arrived persons often develop a variety of health problems. High blood pressure, diabetes and other chronic illnesses are common. Traditional responses would focus on the triad of prevention, intervention and health promotion: important to be sure, but less than adequate to the intricate challenges facing health practitioners today.

“Prevention campaigns tell people to eat better, exercise, and get regular checkups,” says Sarkis. “But many immigrants live in neighborhoods that are not safe or that don’t have sidewalks. Many work two to three jobs. Exercising can be very difficult. And telling people to have cereal for breakfast does not work for populations that are lactose intolerant or not used to cereal. A more thoughtful approach would work with the community to identify barriers, challenges, and needs, and build on their strengths and existing practices to make the modifications to their diets that make sense to them.”

This thoughtful approach–and an intellectually robust, socially committed, cross-disciplinary forum for its expression–are what the new MHS promises its students this coming fall.

For more information, please visit the MHS home page.

IDCE and Human Geography to Host Workshop on “Decolonizing Academic Communicative Praxis”

On April 9 and 10, Clark University’s IDCE Department and Human Geography—a New Radical Journal will present “Words That Remake Life,” an interdisciplinary workspace on “decolonizing academic communicative praxis.”

Quick: what exactly does that mean? Just kidding: the event sounds too creative, ambitious and inclusive to be captured in a dozen words. But the organizers point to a need to work towards “the direct decolonization of academic conferences and workshops” and to consider other “modes of knowing,” including storytelling, poetry, film, dance, music, and theater.

The event is free and open to the public, and takes place in the Fireside Lounge in Dana Commons on the Clark University campus. For more information, please contact Professor Amber Murrey (amurrey@clarku.edu) or visit the event’s Facebook page.

IDCE Revising its Curriculum to Promote Flexible, Transdisciplinary Training

The IDCE Department at Clark University is launching its most significant curriculum changes in many years—changes that will affect all graduate students and redefine the core of IDCE. As significant as these changes are, they are also, fortunately, quite simple to explain.

IDCE’s areas of focus cut across its graduate degree programs

The essential goal is to leverage IDCE’s unique transdisciplinary strengths to create a learning environment that mirrors the working world IDCE students will enter, and which gives them the skills they need to have an impact on that world. The mechanism is a considered and moderate shift away from an emphasis on degree programs within IDCE toward a problem-centered curriculum that brings students from different degree programs together to attack significant problems.

Interdisciplinary study has always been at the heart of the IDCE experience, but the requirements of its seven Master’s programs have not always made such study easy to pursue. Each of these MA or MS programs offers courses that challenge and excite students throughout the department. But in practical terms, it has often proven difficult (sometimes impossible) for students to take enough courses outside of their home degree program to foster the sort of dynamic, cross-programmatic exchange of ideas and perspectives the department strives to achieve.

As Department Director Edward Carr put it, the current system has too often forced each degree program to function “as a department unto itself.” The revised curriculum, by contrast, will “encourage students in different degree programs to work and learn together.” Carr adds that such cross-programmatic encounters are “and “represent IDCE’s greatest intellectual advantage.”

Under the new guidelines, core classes in each degree program will be reduce to three units. Currently such requirements vary from 3.5 to 4.5 units, with additional requirements for methods and skills coursework in some programs.

Across a student’s graduate experience, the rebalanced curriculum will allow for a full six units of electives to be drawn from within one of IDCE’s areas of focus (or, if a student is so inclined, a self-designed area of transdisciplinary focus). This is very much in keeping with the broader IDCE mission to tackle problems which bridge (and indeed defy) disciplinary boundaries, and will make the most of the intellectual and experiential breadth of the IDCE community.

Speaking of those areas of focus, here they are:

IDCE AREAS OF FOCUS:

(department wide, program independent)

Environment and Development

Education for Social Change

Integrated Assessments

Refugees, Forced Migration and Belonging

Youth Development

Economic Development

Workforce Development

As IDCE adds new faculty, and as the world changes, the department will revise these areas of focus to reflect the intersection of the department’s strengths and the most significant challenges facing the world. Under the new curriculum, students will be more free to explore these areas of focus regardless of their degree program, and will spend more time with students and professors from beyond that single program.

What does all this imply for the overall mission of IDCE? Edward Carr recommends envisioning that mission in terms of problems, questions and solutions. In particular, he draws attention to what he calls “wicked problems”—those that defy simple solutions and require the expertise of multiple disciplines. “A lot of people see wicked problems as sources of frustration or disincentives to act,” he notes. “But in IDCE, we see these as the sites where the most interesting things are happening, and where we can have the greatest impact. Both in our research and our teaching, IDCE is positioned to address these challenges because we think and work across disciplines, bringing together diverse expertise and experiences.” The revisions to IDCE’s curriculum are designed to make these boundary-crossings more feasible and frequent.

The culmination of a long process of discussion and deliberation by the IDCE community, the changes are planned to go into effect in the fall of 2017.

Welcome to Engage, the IDCE News Blog

Greetings! After a hiatus of several years, we’re excited to announce this new forum in service to the IDCE community. Engage will provide a platform for ideas, critical reflection, program updates, faculty research and project information, interviews and other features of interest to students, faculty, alums and any who share our interests and concerns.

IDCE is a place of active scholarship. We’ll strive to make Engage a fitting compliment to that pursuit. Our first post (below) concerns exciting new curriculum revisions coming to IDCE with insights into the process by Department Director Edward Carr (and here’s a compelling podcast Prof. Carr has recently developed for NewSecurityBeat). Many more stories and discussions will be appearing soon.

Please (1) bookmark us now, and (2) follow us on Facebook, where we’ll announce new posts as they’re published.

Finally, and most importantly, please share your ideas! If there’s a subject you’d like to see covered here, leave a comment or write to me directly at robertvsredick@gmail.com.

We want Engage to stimulate conversation and dialog, and the more we hear about what concerns you, the better.

• • •

A word about your humble blog administrator: I’m a freelance editor and international development consultant. I taught the IDCE writing workshop/MA paper class for three years in the mid-2000s. Other past employers include the Center for International Forestry Research in Bogor, Indonesia and Oxfam America. I’m also a working fantasy novelist.

I’m truly delighted to be working with the IDCE community again.

Robert V.S. Redick

2017 Famine Threat in Africa Worst in 60 Years

[March 28 2017] I know this grim news is of concern to the IDCE community, and that many are already aware. Time, however, is of the essence: both the U.N. World Food Programme and UNICEF are warning that the famines, developing (for the first time ever) in four countries at once, are unprecedented in scale, threatening the lives of some 20 million people in South Sudan, Nigeria, Somalia and Yemen. The New York Times article on March 27 lays out a great deal of information on the crisis. All of the links above include discussion of ways to help.